New PDF release: A History of Czechs and Jews: A Slavic Jerusalem (Routledge

By Martin Wein

ISBN-10: 1138811653

ISBN-13: 9781138811652

Was Israel based via Czechoslovakia? A historical past of Czechs and Jews examines this query and the ensuing findings are complicated. Czechoslovakia did offer severe, mystery army sponsorship to Israel round 1948, yet this alliance was once short-lived and terminated with the Prague Trial of 1952. Israel’s "Czech weapons" have been German up to Czech, and the Soviet Union strongly inspired Czechoslovakia’s aid for Israel. most significantly in spite of the fact that, the Czechoslovak-Israeli army cooperation used to be merely a part of a miles higher picture.

Since the mid-1800s, Czechs and Jews were systematically evaluating themselves to one another in literature, tune, politics, international relations, media, and historiography. A shared conception of comparable fates of 2 small countries trapped among East and West, in consistent existential risk, helped forge a Czech-Jewish "national friendship" amid classes of estrangement. but, this Czech-Jewish nationwide friendship, an concept that may be traced from Masaryk and Kafka through Weizman and Ben Gurion to Havel and Netanyahu, was once extra fable than fact. family have been frequently combined and hugely depending on higher historic advancements affecting valuable Europe and the center East.

As the Czech Republic emerges as Israel’s major european best friend, this booklet offers a well timed research of this old-new alliance and is vital examining for college students and students with an curiosity in background and Jewish Studies.

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Download PDF by Caitriona Clear: Social change and everyday life in Ireland, 1850-1922

By Caitriona Clear

ISBN-10: 0719074371

ISBN-13: 9780719074370

ISBN-10: 071907438X

ISBN-13: 9780719074387

women and men who have been born, grew up and died in eire among 1850 and 1922 made judgements - to coach, to to migrate, to stick at domestic, to marry, to stick unmarried, to stick in class - in response to the information and assets they'd on the time. This, the 1st accomplished social heritage of eire for the years 1850-1922 to seem given that 1981, attempts to appreciate that wisdom and to debate these assets, for women and men in any respect social degrees at the island as a complete. unique learn, relatively on severe poverty and public healthiness, is supplemented through missed released resources - neighborhood historical past journals, renowned autobiography, newspapers. Folklore and Irish language assets are used largely. All fresh scholarly books in Irish social historical past are, after all, noted through the booklet, however it is a full of life learn, reproducing the voices of the folks and the tales of people each time it could, wondering a lot of the approved knowledge of Irish historiography over the last 5 many years. records are used now and then for illustrative reasons, yet tables and graphs are consigned to the appendix on the again. There are a few illustrations. an concept precis for the scholar, loaded with activates for destiny study, this booklet is written in a non-cliched, jargon-free kind aimed toward the overall reader.

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Die Finanzierung des Ersten Weltkrieges und Hyperinflation by Sibylle Leichtl PDF

By Sibylle Leichtl

ISBN-10: 3638640442

ISBN-13: 9783638640442

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2002 im Fachbereich Gesch. Europa - Deutschland - I. Weltkrieg, Weimarer Republik, be aware: 1,0, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg (Geo- und Geschichtswissenschaften), Veranstaltung: PS.: Einführung in die Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte: Deutsche Wirtschaftsgeschichte 1914 - 1945/48, Sprache: Deutsch, summary: Der erste Weltkrieg (1914-1918) stellte in militärischer Hinsicht einen Wendepunkt in der Geschichte dar. Durch den immensen technischen Fortschritt wurde das Kriegsgebiet über die Schützengräben hinaus ausgedehnt. Erstmals hatte so auch die Zivilbevölkerung der am Krieg beteiligten Staaten unter den Kampfhandlungen zu leiden. Dies waren jedoch nicht die einzigen Auswirkungen des „totalen Krieges“.

Vielmehr stellte die Finanzierung des Ersten Weltkrieges mit all seinen technischen Neuerungen eine bis dahin nicht gekannte Belastung für die gesamte deutsche Volkswirtschaft dar. Um die Mobilmachung finanzieren zu können, wurden im Jahr 1914 die bestehenden Finanzgesetze reformiert. Damit wurde bereits der Grundstein für die Inflation in der Zeit von 1918 bis 1923 gelegt. Die Annahme der deutschen Reichsregierung, der Krieg würde kurz und siegreich sein, hatte zur Folge, dass kein langfristiger Kosten- und Finanzierungsplan für diesen Krieg erarbeitet wurde. Vielmehr wurden durch weitere Änderungen der Finanz- und Steuergesetze sowie durch die Gründung von Darlehenskassen die bestehenden Vorschriften zur Deckung des Geldumlaufs langsam ausgehöhlt. Allein die Ausgabe von insgesamt neun Kriegsanleihen kann als erfolgreiche Finanzierungsmaßnahme gewertet werden. Den wachsenden Finanzbedarf des Reiches (Kriegsproduktion, Tilgung und Verzinsung der Schulden) jedoch konnte keine der genannten Maßnahmen nachhaltig stillen.

Auch Matthias’ Erzbergers grundlegende, nach Kriegsende auf den Weg gebrachte Steuerreform konnte die finanzielle Misere nicht mehr verhindern. Diese Steuerreform führte jedoch dazu, dass sich erstmalig das Abhängigkeitsverhältnis von Bund und Ländern umkehrte. Zusammen mit den horrenden Reparations- zahlungen, den Gebietsverlusten und der Demontage der Industrieanlagen bedeutete der uneingeschränkte Rückgriff auf die Notenpresse während der Kriegszeit, eine desaströse Finanzsituation nach Kriegsende. Der unaufhaltsame Geldwertverfall, der 1923 in der Hyperinflation gipfelte, konnte nur durch eine grundlegende Erneuerung des gesamten Währungssystems erreicht werden. Mit der 1923 gegründeten Rentenbank gelang schließlich das „Wunder der Rentenmark“.

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Get Heresy and Dissent in the Carolingian Empire: The Case of PDF

By Matthew Bryan Gillis

ISBN-10: 0198797583

ISBN-13: 9780198797586

Heresy and Dissent within the Carolingian Empire recounts the heritage of a very good ninth-century spiritual outlaw, Gottschalk of Orbais. Frankish Christianity required obedience to ecclesiastical superiors, voluntary participation in reform, and the idea that salvation used to be attainable for all baptized believers. but Gottschalk-a mere priest-developed a arguable, Augustinian-based theology of predestination, claiming that simply divine election through
grace enabled everlasting lifestyles. Gottschalk preached to Christians in the Frankish empire-including bishops-and non-Christians past its borders, scandalously tough they confess his doctrine or be published as depraved reprobates. Even after his condemnations for heresy within the past due 840s, Gottschalk continued
his actions from criminal due to clergymen who smuggled his pamphlets to a subterranean neighborhood of supporters. This research reconstructs the occupation of the Carolingian Empire's premiere spiritual dissenter on the way to think that empire from the viewpoint of somebody who labored to subvert its such a lot basic ideals. studying the surviving facts (including his personal writings), Matthew Gillis analyzes Gottschalk's literary and non secular self-representations, his modes of argument, his
prophetic claims to martyrdom and marvelous powers, and his surprising defiance to bishops as recommendations for influencing contemporaries in altering political conditions. within the better background of medieval heresy and dissent, Gottschalk's case unearths how the Carolingian Empire preserved order inside the
church via coercive reform. The hierarchy pressured Christians to simply accept correction of perceived sins and mistakes, whereas punishing as resources of non secular corruption these infrequent dissenters who resisted its authority.

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Arthur Field's The Intellectual Struggle for Florence: Humanists and the PDF

By Arthur Field

ISBN-10: 0198791089

ISBN-13: 9780198791089

The highbrow fight for Florence is an research of the ideology that built in Florence with the increase of the Medici, in the course of the early 15th century, the interval lengthy well-known because the such a lot formative of the early Renaissance. rather than easily describing early Renaissance rules, this quantity makes an attempt to narrate those principles to express social and political conflicts of the 15th century, and in particular to the improvement of the Medici regime.
It first exhibits how the Medici social gathering got here to be considered as essentially various from their competitors, the 'oligarchs', then explores the highbrow international of those oligarchs (the 'traditional culture'). As political conflicts sharpened, a few humanists (Leonardo Bruni and Francesco Filelfo) with shut ties
to oligarchy nonetheless tried to complement conventional tradition with classical studying, whereas others, resembling Niccolò Niccoli and Poggio Bracciolini, rejected culture outright and created a brand new ideology for the Medici social gathering. what's extraordinary is the level to which Niccoli and Poggio have been in a position to flip a Latin or classical tradition right into a 'popular culture', and the way the tradition of the vernacular remained conventional and oligarchic.

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Read e-book online Money, Power, and Influence in Eighteenth-Century Lithuania: PDF

By Adam Teller

ISBN-10: 0804798443

ISBN-13: 9780804798440

It has frequently been claimed that Jews have a penchant for capitalism and capitalist monetary job. With this publication, Adam Teller demanding situations that assumption. studying how Jews completed their notable luck in the past due feudal financial system of the eighteenth-century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, he exhibits that fiscal luck didn't inevitably come via any innate entrepreneurial talents, yet via picking out and exploiting fiscal niches within the pre-modern economy—in specific, the monopoly at the sale of grain alcohol.
Jewish financial task used to be a key think about the advance of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and it drastically better the earning, and thereby the social and political prestige, of the noble magnates, together with the strong Radziwiłł kin. In flip, with the magnate's backing, Jews have been capable of leverage their very own monetary luck into excessive prestige in property society. through the years, family members inside of Jewish society started to switch, placing much less price on studying and pedigree and extra on wealth and connections with the property vendors.
This groundbreaking ebook exemplifies how the examine of Jewish monetary heritage can make clear a vital mechanism of Jewish social integration. within the Polish-Lithuanian environment, Jews have been concurrently a despised spiritual minority and key financial gamers, with a consequent status that few might find the money for to ignore.

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Download e-book for iPad: Essays on French History: the Rise of the Reformation in by Farmer,James Eugene

By Farmer,James Eugene

ISBN-10: 1347563490

ISBN-13: 9781347563496

ISBN-10: 1407729098

ISBN-13: 9781407729091

not like another reproductions of vintage texts (1) we've not used OCR(Optical personality Recognition), as this ends up in undesirable caliber books with brought typos. (2) In books the place there are pictures equivalent to pics, maps, sketches and so on now we have endeavoured to maintain the standard of those pictures, so that they signify adequately the unique artefact. even if sometimes there's sure imperfections with those previous texts, we think they should be made to be had for destiny generations to enjoy.

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Prisoners of War: Ballykinlar, An Irish Internment Camp by Liam Ó Duibhir PDF

By Liam Ó Duibhir

ISBN-10: 178117041X

ISBN-13: 9781781170410

Ballykinlar Internment Camp was once the 1st mass internment camp to be verified via the British in eire in the course of the battle of Independence. positioned at the County Down coast and opened in December 1920, it grew to become domestic to enormous quantities of Irish males arrested through the British, usually on little greater than the suspicion of involvement within the IRA. Held for as much as a yr, and subjected to sometimes brutal therapy and bad caliber nutrients in an try and holiday them either bodily and mentally, the interned males as an alternative proven a small group in the camp. the information and abilities possessed via the various population have been used to coach periods, and different actions, resembling activities, drama and tune classes, helped stave off boredom. in the course of a lot of these actions the internees additionally endeavoured to defy their captors with numerous plans for get away. the tale of the Ballykinlar internment camp is at the one hand an account of pain, espionage, homicide and maltreatment, however it can also be a chronicle of survival, comradeship and community.

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Judith Herrin's Margins and Metropolis: Authority across the Byzantine PDF

By Judith Herrin

ISBN-10: 0691153019

ISBN-13: 9780691153018

ISBN-10: 0691166625

ISBN-13: 9780691166629

This quantity explores the political, cultural, and ecclesiastical forces that associated the city of Byzantium to the margins of its far-flung empire. targeting the provincial zone of Hellas and Peloponnesos in principal and southern Greece, Judith Herrin indicates how the status of Constantinople was once mirrored within the army, civilian, and ecclesiastical officers despatched out to manipulate the provinces. She conjures up the ideology and tradition of the heart via studying diversified elements of the imperial court docket, together with international relations, rite, highbrow existence, and family members with the church. specific subject matters deal with the transmission of mathematical manuscripts, the burning of offensive fabric, and the church's position in dispensing philanthropy.

Herrin contrasts existence within the capital with provincial lifestyles, tracing the difference of a principally rural inhabitants to rule by way of Constantinople from the early medieval interval onward. The letters of Michael Choniates, archbishop of Athens from 1182 to 1205, provide a close account of ways this hugely informed cleric coped with lifestyles in an imperial backwater, and exhibit a synthesis of historical Greek tradition and medieval Christianity that was once attribute of the Byzantine elite.

This selection of essays spans the whole lot of Herrin's influential profession and attracts jointly an important physique of scholarship on difficulties of empire. It includes a basic advent, formerly unpublished essays, and a concise advent to every essay that describes the way it got here to be written and the way it suits into her broader research of the bizarre brilliance and durability of Byzantium.

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